Monday, August 12, 2019

Cold Working - Introduction


Cold working of a metal is carried out below its recrystallisation temperature. Normal room temperatures are ordinarily used for cold working of various types of steel. But temperatures up to the recrystallisation range are sometimes used in certain applications.


1. Rolling

2. Extrusion

3. Wire drawing

4. Forging

5. Cold spinning

6. Shot peening

Cold working processes are also similar to hot working processes except for the temperature at which work is done.


Cold rolling process setup is similar to hot rolling. Bars of all shapes such as rods, sheets and strips are commonly finished by rolling. Foil is made of the softer metals in this way. Cold-rolling metals impart smooth bright surface finish and in good physical and mechanical properties to cold rolled parts.. Cold rolling also improves machinability in the cold rolled part by conferring the property of brittleness, a condition, which is conducive to smooth tool, finishes with broken chips.

The preliminary step to the cold-rolling operation, the sheets of pre hot-rolled steel are immersed in an acid solution to remove the washed in water and then dried. The cleaned steel is passed through set of rolls of cold rolling process thereby producing a slight reduction in each the required thickness is obtained.

The arrangement of rolls in a rolling mill, also called rolling stand, varies depending on the application. The various possible configurations of rolls are similar to hot rolling.  Internal stresses are set up in cold rolled parts which remain in the metal unless they are removed by proper heat-treatment. This process needs more power for accomplishing the operation in comparison to hot rolling.


Principle of cold extrusion is similar to that of hot extrusion.   Impact extrusion is also a cold extrusion process. It is used for making small components from ductile materials.  Impact extrusion of material is accomplished where the work blank is placed in position over the die opening the punch forces the blank through the die opening causing material to flow plastically around the punch. The outside diameter of the tube is same as diameter of the die, and the thickness is controlled by the clearance between punch and die. Collapsible medicare tubes and toothpastes etc. are produced using this impact extrusion.


The process of producing the wires of different diameters is accomplished by pulling a wire through a hardened die usually made up carbide. However a smaller diameter wires are drawn through a die made of diamond. The larger diameter oriented wire is first cleaned, pickled, washed and then lubricated.  It is normally done by acid pickling. After picklng, it is washed in water and coated with lime and other lubricants. To make for an easier entrance of wire into the die, the end of the stock is made pointed to facilitate the entry. A pointed or reduced diameter at the end of wire duly lubricated is pushed or introduced through the die which is water cooled also. This pointing is done by means of rotary swaging or by simple hammering. It is then gripped and pulled for attaching it to a power driven reel. The wire diameter is reduced in die because of the ductility property of the material to the smaller diameter through one set of die. For more reduction in diameter of the wire, various sets of dies can be used in line for subsequent reduction in diameter at each stage.  The reduction in each pass through the die range about 10% for steel and 40% for ductile materials such as copper.

The drawing of the wire starts with a rod or coil of hot rolled steel, which is 0.8 to 1.6 mm larger than the final size required.  The material should be sufficiently ductile since it is pulled by the tensile forces. Hence, the wire may have to be annealed properly to provide the necessary ductility. Further, the wire is to go through the conical portion and then pulled out through the exit by the gripper. To carry the lubricant input through the die, special methods such as gulling, coppering, phosphating and liming are used.  

For very thin wires, electrolytic coating of copper is used to reduce friction. The dies used for wire drawing are severely affected because of high stresses and abrasion.

The various die materials that are used are chilled cast iron, tool steels, tungsten carbide and diamond. The cast iron dies are used for small runs. For very large sizes, alloy steels are used in making the dies. The tungsten carbide dies are used most commonly for medium size wires and large productions. The tungsten carbide dies arep referred because of their long life that is 2 to 3 times that of alloy steel dies. For very fine wires, diamond dies are used. Wire drawing improves the mechanical properties because of the cold working. The material loses its ductility during the wire drawing process and when it is to be repeatedly drawn to bring it to the final size, intermediate annealing is required to restore the ductility.

Cold Drawing

Like hot drawing, it also involves the forcing of a metal through by means of a tensile force applied to the exit side of the drawing die. Most of the plastic flow is accomplished by the compressive force which arises from the reaction of metal with die. It is the operation in which the metal is made to flow plastically by applying tensile stresses to the metal. The blank of calculated diameter is placed on a die and held of it by a blank holder and bottom is pressed into the die by a punch and the walls are pulled.  

This process is generally used for making cup shaped parts from the sheet blanks, without excessive wrinkling, thinning and fracturing. It can undertake jobs of nearly any size. It is a process of managing a flat precut metal blank into a hollow vessel. Utensils of stainless steel are generally made by this process.

Efficiency of operation

The efficiency of operation depends upon blank size, reduction factor, drawing pressure, blank holding pressure, punch and die diameters, type of lubricant, die material etc.


It is a process of increasing the hardness and fatigue strength on parts surfaces. The process comprises of throwing a blast of metal shot on to the surface of a component requiring shot peening. It is used to set up a superficial state of surface compression stress, causing the interior of the member to assume an opposite tensile stress. Blast may be thrown either by air pressure or with help of a wheel revolving at high speed. This high velocity blast of metal shot provides a sort of compression over the components surface and increases hardness and strength of the surface and also its fatigue resistance.

No comments:

Post a Comment